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Eurasian Math. J., 2014, Volume 5, Number 2, Pages 7–51 (Mi emj155)  

Hölder analysis and geometry on Banach spaces: homogeneous homeomorphisms and commutative group structures, approximation and Tzar'kov's phenomenon. Part II

S. S. Ajiev

School of Mathematics and Applied Statistics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 2522, Australia

Abstract: In an explicit quantitative and often precise manner, we construct the homogeneous Hölder homeomorphisms and study the approximation of uniformly continuous mappings by the Hölder–Lipschitz ones between the pairs of abstract and concrete metric and (quasi) Banach spaces including, in particular, Banach lattices, general noncommutative $L_p$-spaces, the classes $IG$ and $IG_+$ of independently generated spaces (for example, non-commutative-valued Bochner–Lebesgue spaces) and anisotropic Sobolev, Nikol'skii–Besov and Lizorkin–Triebel spaces of functions on an open subset or a class of domains of an Euclidean space defined with underlying mixed $L_p$-norms in terms of differences, local approximations by polynomials, wavelet decompositions and systems of closed operators, such as holomorphic functional calculus and Fourier multipliers of smooth Littlewood–Paley decompositions. Our approach also allows to treat both the finite (as in the initial and/or boundary value problems in PDE) and infinite $l_p$-sums of these spaces, their duals and “Bochnerizations”. Many results are automatically extended to the setting of the function spaces with variable smoothness, including the weighted ones. The sharpness of the approximation results, shown for the majority of the pairs under some mild conditions and underpinning the corresponding sharpness of the Hölder continuity exponents of the homogeneous homeomorphisms, indicates that the range of the exponents is often a proper subset of $(0,1]$, that is the presence of Tsar'kov's phenomenon. We also consider the approximation by the mappings taking the values in the convex envelope of the range of the original approximated mapping. Negative results on the absence of uniform embeddings of the balls of some function spaces, particularly including BMO, VMO, Nikol'skii–Besov and Lizorkin–Triebel spaces with $q=\infty$ and their VMO-like separable subspaces, into any Hilbert space are established. Relying on the solution to the problem of global Hölder continuity of metric projections and the existence of Hölder continuous homogeneous right inverses of closed surjective operators and retractions onto closed convex subsets, as well as our results on the bounded extendability of Hölder–Lipschitz mappings and rehomogenisation technique, we develop and employ our key explicit quantitative tools, such as the global (on arbitrary bounded subsets) Hölder continuity of duality mappings and the Lozanovskii factorisation, the answer to the three-space problem for the Hölder classification of infinite-dimensional spheres, the Hölder continuous counterpart of the Kalton–Pełczyńki decomposition method, the Hölder continuity of the homogeneous homeomorphism induced by the complex interpolation method and such counterparts of the classical Mazur mappings as the abstract and simple Mazur ascent and complex Mazur descent. Important role is also played by the study of the local unconditional structure and other complementability results, as well as the existence of equivalent geometrically friendly norms.

Keywords and phrases: Hölder classification of spheres, Hölder–Lipschitz mappings, approximation of uniformly continuous mappings, Tsar'kov's phenomenon, Mazur mappings, Lozanovskii factorisation, homogeneous right inverses, metric projection, asymmetric uniform convexity and smoothness, dimension-free estimates, $\lambda$-horn condition, local unconditional structure, Nikol'skii–Besov, Lizorkin–Triebel, Sobolev, non-commutative $L_p$ and $IG$-spaces, Banach lattices, wavelets, three-space problem, Kalton–Pełczyńki decomposition, bounded extension of Hölder mappings, Markov type and cotype, complemented subspaces, UMD.

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MSC: 46Txx, 46Exx, 47Jxx, 47Lxx, 58Dxx, 46T20, 46E35, 47L05, 15A60, 47J07, 46L52
Received: 17.03.2011

Citation: S. S. Ajiev, “Hölder analysis and geometry on Banach spaces: homogeneous homeomorphisms and commutative group structures, approximation and Tzar'kov's phenomenon. Part II”, Eurasian Math. J., 5:2 (2014), 7–51

Citation in format AMSBIB
\by S.~S.~Ajiev
\paper H\"older analysis and geometry on Banach spaces: homogeneous homeomorphisms and commutative group structures, approximation and Tzar'kov's phenomenon. Part~II
\jour Eurasian Math. J.
\yr 2014
\vol 5
\issue 2
\pages 7--51

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