Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics was founded on December 1, 1945. The heavy-water reactor was run in 1949, in 1961 the 7-GeV proton synchrotron started operating. It was the first Russian proton accelerator using the strong focusing principle. Besides, it was a small prototype of the biggest Russian 76-GeV machine built later in Protvino. Now ITEP is one of the most important scientific centers aimed at studying nuclear physics and physics of elementary particles. The Institute occupies the area of the old eighteenth century estate "Cheremushki".