After its foundation in 1755, the University had courses in mathematics, and the Sub-Faculty of Mathematics appeared a few years later. The Faculty of Physics and Mathematics was set up in 1804; its development led to the formation of a variety of mathematical and mechanical sub-faculties: pure and applied mathematics (1804), mechanics (1863). The Moscow Mathematical Society was organized in 1864 and played appreciable role in the development of domestic mathematics and mechanics.
The Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics appeared in 1933, and consisted of three divisions: mathematics, mechanics and astronomy. Later, astronomy part was transferred to the Faculty of Physics; and the Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics separated from the Faculty (1970).
The University's research and theoretical work in mathematical fields was led by famous professors such as P. S. Aleksandrov, N. D. Brashman, S. A. Chaplygin, P. L. Chebyshev, M. V. Keldysh, A. N. Kolmogorov, M. A. Lavrentiev, N. N. Luzin, D. M. Perevozchikov, I. G. Petrovski, S. L. Sobolev, N. E. Zhukovsky.