The Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP, also known as Serpukhov) is among the leading Russian centers in elementary particle physics. It was founded in October 1963. On October 14, 1967 the proton accelerator with 70 GeV beam energy, which was the largest at that time, was put into operation. All leading institutes of Russian Federation and other republics of CIS took part in the investigations at this machine. Right here a wide international collaboration in the field of high energy physics with participation of scientists from Europe and the USA has been established, and it still continues at present.
The fundamental discoveries, recognized throughout the world, have been made at the IHEP accelerator. They are:
Observation of two antinuclei and 19 elementary particles, among which are high spin resonances, the particles with properties of new form of matter (glueballs), and exotic states.
Discovery of the scale invariance of hadronic interactions. These results, together with the analogous ones obtained at SLAC for the electron interactions, have been an experimental foundation for the quark theory of elementary particle structure.
Discovery of the growth of the hadronic interaction total cross sections (Serpukhov effect).
Confirmation in polarization experiments of the important role played by spin at high energies.
Discovery of the beam RFQ field focusing principle realized at IHEP and now successfully applied in numerous laboratories around the world.
Eight discoveries, made at IHEP, have been registered at the State Register of Discoveries of Russian Federation. Nine series of scientific works of the IHEP scientists have been marked with the highest government awards. Many results, obtained at IHEP, are widely used in other fields of science and technology.
At present the IHEP 70 GeV accelerator complex is a base to provide a wide research program on the meson spectroscopy, search for exotic particle states (glueballs, hybrids, multiquark mesons and baryons), polarization studies, rare kaon decay observation, and investigations of the neutrino interactions. More than 175 experiments have been approved at IHEP since 1967.
The new accelerator complex — 3 TeV UNK project is under construction at IHEP. A decision has been taken to complete near future the construction of the first UNK stage — the 400–600 GeV proton accelerator.
The Institute participates in both national and international cooperation in high energy physics. The scientific program is carried out by the scientists from Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Institute for Nuclear Research, Lebedev Physical Institute, Konstantinov Nuclear Physics Institute, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics at Moscow State University, Russian Research Center "Kurchatov Institute", Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Yerevan Physics Institute, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, and CERN. The physicists from Germany, Japan, and the USA participate in the research program as well.
The structure of the Institute is determined by the main trends in the scientific activities. The main goal of the investigations at IHEP is to clarify the nature of the inter-quark forces at large distances, and consequently to understand the basis of nuclear energy, for which they are responsible.