The Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave propagation deals with solar and terrestrial physics, physics of the solar-terrestrial relations, cosmic rays, physics of the ionosphere and magnetosphere, the ionosphere and magnetosphere radio wave propagation, the magnetism of the Earth and planets of the solar system. All studies undertaken at the Institute deal mainly with electrodynamic processes listed above. These processes are acompanied by optical, nuclear and other phenomena reflecting the specifics of objects studied. A distinctive feature of IZMIRAN research is a desire to stage multi-disciplined investigations, using ground, aircraft, balloon, rocket and satellite methods. The most noticeable results have been obtained in programmes based on cooperation and coordination of efforts of Soviet/Russian and foreign scientists and specialists in related disciplines.
From the History of IZMIRAN
The Institute met its 60th anniversary in January 2000. At present the Institute employs about 750 staff, of whom the R@D employees are about 300. The bulk of the Institute is located in the town of Troitsk, outside Moscow, which is one of scientific centres of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In addition, IZMIRAN comprises the St.Petersburg branch and magnetic ionospheric observatory in Kaliningrad.
The history of IZMIRAN is largely that of investigating magnetic storms and sub-storms on the Earth surface, in circum-terrestrial and interplanetary space, initially by means of a network of ground stations of the Soviet Union (1930s — 1940s) and the nonmagnetic skunner "Zarja", then through the extensive use of magnetic measurements on artificial Earth satellites and automatic stations.
With the advent of the space era investigators received access to direct measurements in outer space (near-Earth space in particular) by means of rockets, satellites, orbital stations and spacecrafts.
Already on the first Soviet satellites IZMIRAN began investigating electromagnetic emissions and signals from circum-terrestrial plasma. An important result obtained by means of the satellite Intercosmos-19, was the discovery of an anomalous increase in the intensity of
low-frequency emissions (0.1–20kHz) over the epicentrial regions of future earthquakes.
IZMIRAN studies phenomena of
solar-terrestrial physics starting from the onboard investigation of the solar ultraviolet and gamma-ray emission (satellites Cosmos-166,230, spacecrafts of Intercosmos series, Phobos space probes, Prognoz, Soyuz, et cetera).
A long series of experimental and theoretical investigations was carried out on solar radio outbursts and their fine structure in the metre wavelength. These helped to assess parameters of solar corona.
Multi-disciplined experimental and threoretical investigations produced a two-component model of the sunspot, which for the first time gave a consistent explanation for all kinds of emissions from the sunspot area, also explaining the structure and the dynamics of the sunspot.
IZMIRAN is the Head Institution charged with preparation and implementation of CORONAS-I and CORONAS-F missions. CORONAS as a whole is a unique complex space mission, comprising three special-purpose satellites to be launched in 1994, 1999, and
after 2000. The first satellite of the series, CORONAS-I was launched in 1994. The second spacecraft, CORONAS-F, was successfully launched
on 31 of July 2001. The chosen polar orbit (altitude about 500km above the Earth, inclination about 83 degrees) ensures continuous observations of the Sun in recurrent intervals about 20 days. The scientific payload of CORONAS is designed to measure electromagnetic radiation in a broad range from radio to gamma wavelengths, as well as the fluxes of neutral (neutrons) and charged (electrons, protons and nuclei) solar particles.