The Institute of Mathematics is an institution of advanced research in mathematics, belonging to the National Centre for Science and Technology. It was founded in 1969 by the decree no. 25/CP, dated February 5, 1969, of Vietnamese Government.

Primarily a research institute, the Institute of Mathematics has its main tasks to carry out basic research in the mathematical sciences and to collaborate on scientific research with other research institutes in Vietnam and abroad. From its foundation, the Institute always places an emphasis on applications of mathematics. Its third main task is to cooperate with other institutions in applying mathematics in management and production development. The Institute is also committed to improving the quality of mathematics education at higher level. The training centre of the Institute was officially founded in 1994. Its aim is to fulfil the fourth main task of the Institute: to train young researchers in mathematics.